Fair Oaks Farm: a look inside an industrial pig farm

If there’s one thing I wish more people would do, it’s visit farms.  Most of our country has lost an intimate connection with the way our food is grown because they don’t grow it (raise it, slaughter it, or even cook it) themselves.  When you understand the life cycle of food – a leaf, a fruit, an animal – it encourages appreciation, balance, and a sense of connection that is disruptive to the cycle of overeating and food waste that our world is increasingly embracing.

Since I was in Chicago for a wedding this past weekend, I decided to add a day to the trip to visit a huge midwestern dairy farm that has recently (2013) added swine production.  This is the peak of agri-tourism: a campus of buildings to explore and more information than your head can hold at every turn!  There’s a restaurant (closed on Mondays, unfortunately), a cafe that sells ice cream and cheese (with floor to ceiling windows looking into their yogurt processing), a birthing barn, a 4D movie theater, an indoor ropes course, and a big garden (that was mostly dirt – assuming it was full earlier)!.  Due to the timing of our drive, we didn’t get to do a dairy tour, but did hop on a pig tour.

I was floored.  Surprised at not only some of the methods they use, but also that you could see every part of it.  The whole facility is designed around allowing visitors the ability to look through huge windows down into the barns – I’ll let you browse the pictures to see what I saw:

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“Main campus” – where you go to start the tours before you’re shuttled to the operating farm2015-10-05 13.28.42
Indoor ropes course – for kids and adults!  I like that there are lots of opportunities to be physically active on the trip here, though we didn’t have time for this.2015-10-05 14.15.56
The operational part of the pig farm – a large building built on top of the barns so you can see down into them.2015-10-05 14.10.36
Pigs being artificially inseminated in the background, post insemination in the foreground, where they stay until they have a confirmed pregnancy
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In the center of every observation deck there are interactive displays.  Here, you can give a fake pig a fake ultrasound.2015-10-05 13.54.34
Then the sows deliver in a farrowing crate, where they stay for 21 days (!!) eating and feeding their babies.  The average litter here is 14, and the farm’s record is 27 (!!!).  The sows can stand and lie on either side, have food and water always available at their nose, that pipe leading down to the front of the pig delivers fresh air.  The crate is to prevent them from laying on a piglet and squashing it to death – apparently a common situation? I forgot to ask the tour guide how often that happens, but found this conversation on a forum.

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They bring a new born piglet (that’s the umbilical cord hanging down) up to a window while the guide talks about the birth cycle.  Minutes old, and very cute!

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As they grow, they’re put in groups with other pigs of their age and size to reduce bullying.

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Even bigger!  All the floors they walk on are slatted so the manure drops down and is removed to use as fertilizer as crops, and run through a digester to create energy. The pigs move from this stage to another farm where they’re raised to slaughter weight.

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There were a lot of high tech displays – this one puts you into a virtual pig pen, and the computer pigs actually move around in response to where you stand.

What do you think?

The reason I encourage people to visit farms is because everyone seems to have an opinion about food, but very few actually try to see things firsthand, and even fewer are doing the actual work of it.  In the past few years I’ve become a lot more conscientious of how often I eat meat and where I get it from, and the truth is that most meat in our country is raised pretty much like this.  I do believe that all of these pigs are clinically healthy and well-monitored – the farm and barns were so clean the word “sterile” came to my mind more than once – but they live their lives from birth to death in an enclosed room on a concrete slab.  They have other pigs around them to play with and snuggle with, but not very much space to roam or root or explore (one display mentioned that an adult pig is about as smart as a 3-year old human).  As an American consumer, the only real power you have to change systems like this (unless you want to go into the business!) is to choose carefully how you spend your money.  It’s the reason I encourage people to talk to farmers, support local farms they can visit, and be willing to spend a little more on meat if they choose to eat it.

Share your thoughts!  Does this bother you?  Does it change anything about the way you want to eat?

Natural Products Expo East: thoughts on GMO-food and some food (samples) for thought

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This year, I went to the NatProdExpo for the second time.*  It’s in Baltimore, an easy jaunt from DC, and if you’re a foodie, it’s THE place to check out new food trends, sample everything from ice cream to hemp seeds, and hear interesting speakers on topics from “The Real Reason We Need GMO Labeling” to “The Importance of Nutrition for Behavior, Learning and Mood.”  And as a bonus (for me, at least) – it’s not just food!  They have health and beauty products, kitchen products, laundry products, and everything in between.

So, what’s a “natural” product?

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Certified Piedmontese Beef                              Color Maker, Inc

Really, almost anything.  Because the term “natural” isn’t specifically defined and yet is still favorably received by customers, everyone co-opts it.  The food section features everything from natural steak to natural food coloring (pictured above), and there were too many gluten-free, GMO-free, dairy-free, nut-free, animal-free products to count.  The conference is billed as the “largest natural, organic and healthy products event,” and there’s definitely a strong health angle, but it’s important to bear in mind that what IS in a product is more important than what it’s “free” of.  There were more than a dozen candy companies represented there, including Jelly Belly’s (they’re organic).  My gauge of the healthiness of a food is nutrient density – the amount of vitamins/minerals per calorie – and through that lens, a huge chunk of the food companies wouldn’t make my list of “things to consume regularly and frequently.” Here’s a brief roundup of products that caught my eye!

Product Review

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Michele’s Granola – a friend of mine introduced me to this granola company, and I have to say I’ve really never tasted better.  Somehow they get it light and crisp and crunchy without being too hard…as much as I tried, their representative wouldn’t tell me the secret to getting it this way!  It’s pretty low in sugar, and the first 5-6 ingredients are oats, coconut, nuts, and seeds.  My only critique: they appear to only use canola oil; I’d like to see more variety in that department!  This pic is of their new Muesli product, their version of the traditional German breakfast dish.


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Manitoba Harvest – I’ve had their hemp seeds (which are a fantastic addition to yogurt, oatmeal, smoothies, baked goods, etc), but they have new bars out, and they’re pretty good!  10g of protein and 3g of fiber, with only 9g of sugar despite the fact that that’s high on the ingredient list (I always look for a 3:1 sugar:fiber ratio to make sure my blood sugar won’t be spiking after eating!).  At 240 calories, this would make a nice afternoon snack, or couple well with a piece of fruit for a light breakfast.


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Bob’s Red Mill – oats, quinoa, chia seeds…and dozens of other products that even “regular” grocery stores carry under this brand.  They’re branching out with some new to-go oatmeal cups and even pea protein powders, items I’m not usually a huge fan of, but their staples are tried and true, and Bob himself comes in his cute hat to meet people at the expo.  I skipped that because I did last year, but how cool is that?


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Fage Yogurt – I’m always looking for WHOLE greek yogurt that’s strained (not thickened with gums, starches, or powders), and it’s getting a little easier to find.  My go-to is plain, but with these new whole-fat flavors I couldn’t resist!  Flavored yogurts tend to be mostly sugary and I view them more as a treat than a staple, but Fage totals have a reasonable balance of fat, protein, and sugar.


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Perfect Pickler – this, I love.  It’s a home pickling kit that takes the guess work and cooking/canning aspects out and puts some healthy probiotics IN.  The only problem I see here is that I’d want to do more than one jar at at time, but if you make a jar a week (it takes a few days at room temp for them to be sufficiently pickled) you’d have lovely add-ons for sandwiches, salads, and soups for a family very easily.  Kim-chi me!

Educational Sessions

Changing Diets, Changing Minds: The Importance of Nutrition for Behavior, Learning and Mood Presented by: Carlson Labs

Dr. Alex Richardson is a very engaging [woman!] professor at Oxford, and spoke primarily about the importance of omega-3’s for mental health.  Her presentation was very well laid out – she had the audience on the edges of seats as she described the typical amounts consumed, the problem with having such a vegetable-oil heavy fatty acid supply, and how getting enough DHA/EPA has implications for everything from learning to read to maternal post-partum depression.  She showed this slide, which is imaging of the neural connectivity of a child’s brain whose mother did and didn’t get enough omega-3 during pregnancy, respectively:

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In this case, you are what your mother eats, and many mothers aren’t making sure their balance of omega-3 to omega-6 is at the right level!  I’m a huge proponent of eating a variety of fats (instead of avoiding fat), and Dr. Richardson emphasized the importance of fatty fish to meet the levels (nuts and seeds have some omega-3’s, but unfortunately not in the form that is most potent in the body).  She also noted that the previous recommendation for pregnant women to eat a maximum of 2-3 servings of fish per week is now the target amount, because the benefit of the fish outweighs the risk of mercury poisoning, especially if you focus on certain types of fish.

On the downside (for a food-first dietitian), despite noting that healthy levels of omega-3 are achievable through diet alone, her emphasis was on using supplements to make up for deficiencies.  No surprise really – the talk was sponsored by Carlson Labs, who make supplements – but my recommendation would be to

1) look to changes you can make in your diet first (fish 2-3 times/week)
2) get blood levels of omega-3’s checked
3) supplement only after 1 and 2 prove to be inadequate.

Ask your doctor if he/she can order that test, especially if you don’t eat fish or are pregnant or trying to become pregnant.

Non-GMO Series: The Real Reason We Need GMO Labeling

Presented by Gary Hirshberg, the founder of the “Just Label It” movement (and former dairy farmer, I was surprised to learn!), this was the most interactive talk I went to.  Gary is a compelling speaker, very smart, and laid out the reasons for his campaign with clarity and passion.

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I went into this session as someone opposed to Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) labeling, for the following reasons: GMO technology (by itself) has not been shown to have health implications for human consumption, people are confused enough by labels as it is (why add one more that doesn’t indicate health or lack there of?), and it could steer people away from healthy foods (GMO vegetables) and toward those that aren’t (non-GMO cookies).  Also, plants and animals that are certified organic can’t contain GMO’s by law – so there you have a way to choose non-GMO if you want!

Getting the full story on any issue you want to “take a side on” is crucial, so I’m so glad I went to this talk – I learned so much, and understand more nuances of the situation than I’d thought about initially.  Gary’s primary reason for starting this campaign is to strike a blow at one of the most pervasive uses of GMO technology: herbicide usage.  There’s a crucial distinction here that most people don’t fully realize – GMO technology and herbicide/pesticide technology are two separate things. Genetic modification of an alfalfa plant that allows it to be unaffected by herbicide and application of said herbicide are separate steps.  Got it?  So, in this particular instance of use of GMO technology, herbicide use in our country skyrocketed.  (That jump is even mostly attributable to a single GMO modification in a single plant: soy.) When that happened, the only weeds that survived were the toughest weeds, and adapted to become resistant to herbicide, which then necessitates bigger doses or stronger herbicides to kill.  Basically, in an arms war with nature, nature is always going to win in the end.  The best way to farm is to work with the land, not against it – Mother Nature will genetically modify with sample sizes and a level of mastery humans can’t compete with!

So, back to the labeling.  Why label?  Why not just attack the use of herbicides that cause resistant weeds and is dangerous for people to breathe and eat?  Someone asked that question, and sadly the answer came down to: legal tactics and money.  The Just Label It organization has only tens of thousands of dollars to put against multi millions of the food and ag companies, so they’re trying to get them to change though public/consumer pressure, knowing that most manufacturers will not want to put the two words “genetically modified” before ingredients on their food labels.  (I was glad to learn that they’re only pushing for a bid to add that in the ingredient list, and not create a new front of package label – although there’s a certification that has taken this route from the GMO-Free side.)

Here was the real surprise to me: Gary himself isn’t actually “anti-GMO.”  I went up to talk to him after he finished speaking, and asked about what he thought of the use of GMO technology for purposes other than herbicide resistance.  What if the technology was used to reduce harmful compounds in foods (like acrylamide in potatoes) or enhance positive ones (like beta-carotene in rice) or make a crop resistant to bugs without the use of pesticide application (as in Bt eggplant)?**  I’m not going to quote him directly, because I didn’t record and I wouldn’t want to get it wrong, but Gary said that with the proper testing for safety for consumption and environmental impact, genetically modifying food might prove to have merit (and he was actually the one who pointed me to the potato example, saying, “that’s interesting”).  If a food company wants to enhance a food by genetically modifying it, they should be transparent about what and how they’re doing, and use the “GM” label as a jumping off point for a conversation and education about the process.

To be honest, I’m still not sure if I’ll sign the Just Label It petition.  I’m glad I’m a lot more aware of their cause and its roots, and I’m all for transparency in food production, but I worry that being “GMO” will become equivalent to “bad for you” in a permanent way, when only some applications of the technology are problematic.  Requiring transparency of how safety and efficacy trials are conducted should be part of the solution.  I view this the same way I do computers, or automobiles – it all depends how you use it, and how well you test it; anything can be applied to make life better, or to hurt people and cause destruction.  It’s a big, complicated topic, and I welcome any questions or insights you may have!  Overall, I had a fantastic time at the Expo, and hope to go back next year.  Thanks for reading about my experience!

Join me on Instagram as I take a romp through all things food and pottery!

*I attended the Expo free of charge as a blogger.  I was not paid to attend and received free samples from the vendors I chose to write about.

**The articles linked to here are also excellent for exploring the issue of GMO technology as a whole, and do a good job of addressing all sides of the issue

Fal-olive-fal patties with feta and sriracha

It’s time for a contest!

I received free samples of California Ripe Olives mentioned in this post. By posting this recipe I am entering a recipe contest sponsored by California Ripe Olives and am eligible to win prizes associated with the contest. I was not compensated for my time.

The lovely people at California Ripe Olives have sponsored a RecipeRedux contest with one of my favorite ingredients/foods/flavor add-ons: black olives.  Truthfully, I used to hate olives, but started to like them more and more in my early 20’s and now they’re probably on my Top 10 list (no other food has made such a huge jump, ever!  Licorice, I am trying, but I still hate you!).  Salty, briny, and lightly sweet – olives are a versatile food that’s at the heart of the Mediterranean diet (an eating pattern that has been shown again and again and again to offer health and youth to its subscribers).  California black ripe olives are as good as they taste with vitamin E (.25 mg per serving), iron (.49 mg per serving), vitamin A (60 IU per serving), and fiber (.5 grams per serving). They are packaged at their peak to preserve nutrients for year-round enjoyment – I consider them a pantry staple!

Easy “fal-olive-fal” patties

Olives and chickpeas are a perfect pair: chickpeas are high in protein and carbohydrate, while olives are high in fat.  (Remember: fat is good for you!)  This recipe is ready in 15 minutes for an appetizer or main course – or next-day sandwich at work.

  • 1 large can chickpeas, drained (or two 15-ounce cans)
  • 1 can California Black Ripe pitted olives, drained (12 ounces)
  • 1/4 cup tahini
  • 1/2 teaspoon cumin
  • juice of half a lemon
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 1/2 cup diced eggplant
  • 2 tablespoons + 4 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
  • Feta and sriracha, for serving

Place chickpeas in a large bowl, and mash with a potato masher, fork, or the bottom of the chickpea can.  Roughly chop black olives, and add to chickpeas with tahini, cumin, salt and lemon.  Heat 2 tablespoons of olive oil in a shallow pan on medium high heat, and lightly saute eggplant until soft (5-7 minutes).  Add eggplant to the chickpea bowl, and stir to combine.  Heat remaining oil in the same pan, then form small patties (~3″ in diameter) and place in hot oil.  Cook for 4-5 minutes per side, until golden brown, then flip and cook second side.  Serve with feta and sriracha.


Lunch at the pottery studio (+honey peach tarte)

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What’s the best thing you’ve done for yourself?

For me, at least one of the answers is clear: picking up pottery as a hobby gave me a creative outlet, a way to make unique gifts, a place to relax, and introduced me to lots of amazing people I would have never met otherwise.  I started about 4 years ago, and just couldn’t stop!  (If you’re interested, check out my StonewareBySarah Facebook page or Square Market – I take custom orders!) Here are some pictures I’ve posted to my Instagram feed lately:

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There’s one lady to thank for starting it all: Jill Hinckley – she owns the studio, is my teacher, and is still going strong even on her 79th birthday!  She makes the most beautiful pots while explaining how to do it, and is so popular that some of her students have been coming for decades.  One thing you should know about potters: most of them (us!) are foodies, so when there’s a potluck, it’s VERY serious.  This is not a “grab some store cupcakes” kind of event – people bring legitimate delicacies.  This week, to celebrate Jill’s birthday, we had salmon with dill & mustard, fresh gazpacho, broccoli and radish salad, two caprese salads, eggplant caponade, and 3 desserts – among other things!  And cheese, some charcuterie, and pate.  We may not look fancy, but we sure do eat fancy! Here’s Jill with the spread:

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Dessert you can eat for breakfast

I made honey peach tartes for the occasion, which fall into my favorite category of things that are sweet like a dessert, but healthy enough to have for breakfast.  This recipe is simple (especially if you make the dough ahead) and I even managed to bake it in the toaster oven at the pottery studio.  Recently, I’ve been into Siggi’s yogurt, which I like because it’s high in protein and low in sugar, and they use real ingredients to flavor, so that was easy for my cream layer.  Of course, you can’t beat a local peach this time of year, so in a few easy steps you have a beautiful little tarte!


Honey Peach Tarte

  • Whole wheat crust (I used this recipe and replaced the shortening with Siggi’s vanilla yogurt)
  • 8 ounces (1 carton + rest of the other that I used for the crust) Siggi’s vanilla yogurt
  • 1 egg
  • 1 Tablespoon powdered sugar
  • 2 peaches, sliced (~16 slices per peach)
  • 1-2 Tablespoons honey

Preheat oven to 350F.  Roll out the crust and move carefully to a baking sheet (I made 2 small tartes because I baked them in a toaster oven; if making one large use a full-size sheet).  Beat egg and sugar into yogurt, and spread into center of crust.  Place peach slices artfully into the yogurt.  Drizzle with honey, then gently turn up sides of the crust to just cover the outside of the border.  Bake for 40 minutes, or until crust is golden.  Allow to cool before slicing.

Back to the table: chunky market veggie gazpacho


Produce, produce, everywhere

It’s getting to that point of the summer when I actually have more produce than I can handle around my kitchen…between bringing home a load from the market weekly and visiting my mom’s garden on Tuesday, I have a glut of cherry tomatoes, beets, corn, peaches, and peppers.  One of the best problems to have, right?  Since this month’s RecipeRedux theme is “back to the table,” I decided to put out a bunch of yummy dishes and have an al fresco smorgasboard for a friend visiting from out of town.  Summer dinners are much more casual, but convening around food at the end of the day is an important family ritual to keep up, even if you don’t need to use silverware for all the food!

A word about gazpacho

Gazpacho should be easy.  After all, it’s basically a vegetable smoothie that you eat with a spoon.  Some recipes call for blanching and deseeding of tomatoes, peeling cucumbers, and chilling overnight but that all seems overly complicated to me.  Yes, my soup will have more texture than a restaurant version, but that means more fiber and other nutrients.  This article reviews the “5 mistakes of gazpacho” – and I’m making that one on purpose!  My friend said it was the best gazpacho she’d ever had, and that she loved the texture, so it goes to show that a few extra peels never hurt :)


Chunky market veggie gazpacho


  • 3-4 medium [fresh, local] tomatoes (or about 3 cups of cherry tomatoes)
  • 2 small bell peppers (yellow, orange, or red work best)
  • 1 small onion
  • 1 clove garlic (this may be the only thing you want to roast – left raw, it gives the soup a spicy edge!)
  • 1 small English cucumber
  • 3 Tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 1/2 teaspoon black pepper
  • 1 Tablespoon Worchestershire sauce
  • 1 Tablespoon red wine vinegar
  • toppings: fresh basil, corn, croutons, parmesan cheese…try what you like!


Put all ingredients in a blender and pulse into chunks; puree to desired thickness.  Optional: add breadcrumbs for a thicker texture.

Is red meat bad for you? (+grilled flat iron steak + peach salsa)


I received beef product mentioned in this post at no cost. By posting this recipe I am entering a recipe contest sponsored by The Beef Checkoff and am eligible to win prizes associated with the contest. I was not compensated for my time.

Red meat: how much is too much?

Some people will tell you that any amount of red meat is unhealthy.  Some will tell you a diet of mostly meat is the way to go – so who’s right?  The truth is probably somewhere between the two: in the US, we eat a LOT of meat, and a healthy diet is all about balance.  We rank 3rd in world beef consumption at 85.5  pounds/person/year consumed (behind Uruguay and Argentina, in case you were curious), and the hamburger is basically synonymous with American food culture.

I believe the problem with way we eat red meat in this country is threefold: in context, amount, and source.  Context: most meals are based on meat and refined grains/fried foods (hamburger on a roll, steak and fries, meatballs over pasta, etc).  Amount: portions are huge!  Source: cheap meat is cheap because the animals were fed inexpensive grains, which alters the nutrient content from those fed a grass-based diet quite a lot.  If you change the context (a balanced meal, with lots of produce), the amount (small, to reflect that you don’t need much and 30-40g of protein is ideal for digestion/absorption), and the source (choosing grass-fed meat with a higher amount of omega-3’s), the healthfulness of the meal is drastically increased.  Eating meat this way, for a few meals a week, is good way to practice moderation while still enjoying the variety of cuts and luxury of availability we have!

For this recipe (part of a RecipeRedux contest), I wanted to combine some unexpected flavors: the sweetness of peach salsa with savory meat – it’s the onion and cilantro that really take it over the top!  I got my flat-iron steak from Country Vittles, a farm near my hometown about 2 hours north of DC.  The cattle spend their life from birth on the farm, and are grass-fed by the family who have generations in the business.  What I love most about buying from them (and all the market vendors) is that you can ask questions, hear the story, and get tips directly from the people who are doing the farming.

They were sold out of the skirt or flank steak I wanted by the time I got to them last week, but suggested using the flat iron instead, and it worked perfectly.  At $13/lb, it was one of their less expensive cuts, and I know that sounds like a lot – but remember, meat should be expensive!  It’s extremely labor and resource intensive, and reflects more closely the real price of eating animals (that you don’t have to go out and hunt yourself!).  A little reverence & gratitude for the life of the animal who provided it might also be in order!

So here it is: the recipe!  I’d love to hear your thoughts on eating meat, eating meat with fruit, and how you find balance…and don’t forget to check out the rest of the beef recipes by clicking the blue frog!

Grilled flat-iron steak and peach salsa

  • 8 ounces flat-iron, skirt, or flank steak
  • 4 lg peaches
  • 1 lg onion
  • 3 banana peppers
  • 1 jalapeno pepper
  • ½ tsp salt
  • 1 bunch cilantro

How to grill (or broil) the perfect steak:

  1. preheat grill to high; ensure that grates are well-oiled
  2. dab meat dry with a paper towel, then season with salt & pepper
  3. with grill hot (~450F), lay the meat down and close the lid
  4. cook for 5 minutes, then open grill and flip, close lid then cook for 5 more minutes (this will be rare; cook longer for medium or well-done)
  5. remove from the grill and place on a plate.  Allow to rest for 8-10 minutes (crucial step!)
  6. slice against the grain (make cuts perpendicular to the direction the muscle runs)

Dice and combine the remaining ingredients in a bowl to make the salsa.  Serve over strips of steak. (8 ounces raw meat should serve 2 servings of 3 ounces each cooked; salsa will yield 4-5 cups and is excellent as a dip for chips, too!)

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Tomato pie with cashew cream


Summer is the only season to eat fresh tomatoes

At least, if you live in the northeast, where the most amazing heirloom tomatoes start coming around mid July and stick around through October.  Tomatoes bred to travel well don’t usually taste like much, but the ones from local farmer’s markets are good enough to eat whole!  I’m lucky enough to have access to fantastic heirlooms working at Chesley Vegetable Farms in my neighborhood on Saturdays, and got some yellow ones last weekend.

Another thing that happened last week: cashew cream.  I guess most people call this cashew cheese, but I think the consistency is more like a spread than a true cheese, and I like to add some extra water so it’s a little saucier (also great over noodles this way!).  A new friend introduced me to this recipe and I promptly made a double batch (note: my friend added a little nutritional yeast to hers, which really put it over the top!).  Since the cashew cheese is vegan, I figured baking it in a vegan crust would fit nicely – and voila, a summer treat that is loaded to the brim with fiber, protein, and veggies.

Summer tomato pie with cashew cream

  • vegan crust (I used 100% whole wheat flour; olive oil would work best)
  • cashew cream (I added 1/2 cup of water and used roasted garlic cloves)
  • 5-6 medium tomatoes
  • dash black pepper

Preheat oven to 350F. Press the crust into a 9″ pan, up the sides and evenly onto the floor.  Add half the cashew cream and spread over the bottom with the back of a spoon.  Slice tomatoes across the side (perpendicular to the stem, not through it) and gently push seeds out to remove moisture.  Place de-seeded tomatoes in a single layer, then add the rest of the cream, spread, and add another layer of tomatoes.  Garnish with black pepper.  Bake for 1 hour, then remove and let cool for 20-30 minutes before serving.  (This would probably also be great with herbs between the cream and tomatoes, and might work well with other summer veggies…maybe some zucchini or eggplant??)

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